The world arranged itself around a distribution between sovereign states, with each state taking
responsibility for the group that it represented. In the 21st century, however, we are living
unavoidably in a world of greater complexity. The inter-State relations and the transnational
movements are interlinked and crossed with confrontations between States, conflicts that
persist, and social violences that affect entire regions.
Many States have grown weak and show signs of instability and corruption. Poverty may be seen as one of the most flagrant violations of human rights in this century. The effectiveness of rights is called into question and the issue of
the violations committed by the States themselves has not been resolved either. These
violations, far from diminishing, are multiplying within a context marked by an obsession for
security. Together with this, transnational relations create situations that elude the control of
the States and the effective application of the rights that have been so difficult to proclaim.